Bees and their social life

If you want to know more of the bees and their social life, I invite you to read this article, since we see the role of the queen in the hive, the workers and the drones
Bees are a genus of insects of the family Apidae, notes in the collective imagination and for the production of honey for the terrible bites. The endemic breeds are different:
particularly popular are the bees carniche, particularly common in Northern and Central Europe, and the bees ligustiche, widespread in Central and known to insiders for their ability to produce honey. Since the focus of this article is related to bees and their social life, analyze their strict organization.
Premise that the bees, insects operosissimi, live in colonies or families and each carries out its activities on the basis of well-defined tasks in relation to caste. In principle, the social skills of bees mean that it is not at all an exaggeration to consider the family as a superorganism in part: in this case, the center is the survival of the entire family rather than the individual insect.
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As we shall see, to better define the discourse about bees and their social life, we must consider the three different castes that make up the population:
• Queen Bees: there is one in the colony. Lays eggs continuously (about 3,000 per day) to allow the replacement of the bees. The queen difference to the long body (between 18 mm and 22 mm). Everything depends on its supply concerns regarding the use of royal jelly, royal provided by maids. After 3 or 4 years, because it loses its strength, the queen bee is replaced. Having said that cite the seeding of the nuptial flight and when we speak of the drones, we simply say that their sting is not poisonous, but it is sort of a hook with which to kill the drones after playing the queen bees and newborn, the order to maintain control of the colony.

• Worker Bees: their task is to carry on the survival of the colony, managing the nest, collecting pollen and nectar, and if necessary, protecting it from external attacks. What differentiates the worker bees from the queen and the smaller body size (average 12 mm). If in the summer, living 40 days because of heavy workloads, in the winter time comes to live even five months. Their social role is closely related to the age and needs of the family. Typically, after the birth, rests for several hours to recover from the stress of the hatched cell. Feeding, it becomes stronger. Between the fourth and sixth day, the worker bees organize the hive, after which the clean along with the brood combs. Until the thirteenth day, have the task of feeding the larvae hatched from the eggs laid by the queen bee. But it is between the fourteenth and nineteenth day that comes out of the main task of the worker bees, ie to collect pollen and nectar. During this time, in fact they learn to fly. Only from the twentieth to the fortieth day, the worker bees become foragers: it increases the frequency of flights and once you find areas rich in flowers, began collecting pollen and nectar that will be turned into honey.

• Fuchi: are nothing more than the males of bees, whose primary task is to inseminate the queen bee during the nuptial flight. Clouds of males chasing the queen to continue the species. However, since the endofallo (the organ player) remains hooked to the body of the queen bee, the next door before detachment to detachment of their bowels and eventually to death. The drones are born from eggs larger than those of the bees. What differentiates the drones from the bees is the presence of a heavier body and covered with hair and a language, only able to collect nectar. Furthermore, the drones have no sting. In principle, in a hive are on average between 2,000 and 4,000 drones that feed on the honey from the combs or with the collected pollen to bees. Among other tasks of the drones, there is also to keep the hive in order. Now, you know more about bees and their social life.

The bees and reproduction

Swarming is the way of the playback of the bees. Typically occurs in the spring or summer and is closely linked to weather conditions. The formation of the new colony occurs when the queen bee leaves the original family with a large number of worker bees, ready to formed what is known as the primary swarm. Meanwhile, within the family of origin, it was decided to develop other new queen bees, ready to replace the one that will leave the hive. It should be borne in mind that the presence of multiple queens in the family would give to the chaos.

Situation unthinkable! In circumstances where there are multiple queens you can make a swarming secondary or even a tertiary swarming that would only weaken their family. And 'common for a new queen bees try to mate with mating flight and following fertilization will try to eliminate the other relying on the help of worker bees. Typically, when the new queen bee is born, the swarm leaves the hive putting on a branch in the vicinity of the apiary. It's up to the bees esploratici seek the hollow shaft best suited to the creation of the new colony. Once you have found the right place, the scout bees warn that the swarm will start issuing the pheromone Nasonov, a scented trail it takes to keep them together. The old queen, after a couple of broods is replaced by a new one. As for the secondary showers, the queen is a virgin and will try to mate once out of the nest. If, however, was killed by a swallow or a hornet, the family would disappear for the simple fact that in the new nest there are no more eggs to be able to raise another. That is the reason why the swarm is larger than the primary to the secondary. All the bees that make up the swarm when they leave the hive are filled with honey that acts as nourishment: sometimes find a new nest can be difficult. The virgin queen bee, which has survived in a particularly hot day, out of the hive and mates with twelve / then drones, whose semen is stowed inside the spermatheca. Fertilization takes place only at a later time: the egg and the sperm passes oviduct output goes to fertilize it.

E 'at this very moment that occurs the passage of the genetic traits of the kelp. Please note that if the egg is fertilized diploid born a bee who has the genetic traits of both the mother and the father. If the egg is not fertilized, the drone is haploid and thus possessor exclusively genetic traits of the mother. If the spermatheca is empty fucaiola born a queen bee, as they can give birth only drones. This involves the end of the family, since the worker bees have no more eggs from which raise a new queen bee. So there will be no renewal of worker bees. At a time when the worker bees are aware of the lack of efficiency of the queen bee can replace it, as long as the weather conditions are conducive to a nuptial flight and there is a large number of drones in circulation.

Queen bees: development, reproduction, exchange, singing and marking

The queen bees are usually the mothers of all those present inside the hive. The objective of this post is to present a summary of the queens as they develop, how they reproduce, as is the process of replacing and how to find them by marking.

Development of queen bees: the origin starts from a larva that is selected by the worker bees. Then, is fed with royal jelly to make mature, so as to make it become fertile. Unlike the worker bees, the queens are sexually mature. In reference to the development of queen bees, we just say that just before the exit from the cell real, you hear a squeal that acts as a signal to other bees. Prior to swarming (reproduction of bee families), the worker bees can separate the queens to have a greater number within the hive. Without the intervention of the first, the young queen bees can kill those who are still within the cells themselves.

Reproduction of queen bees: in principle, the queen bee can survive to mate with a number of drones between 12 and 15 outside the hive. The sperm of the drones is accumulated in the spermatheca of the queen bee. Fertilization takes place in the moment in which the egg is approached at the exit, coming into contact with the sperm. From this stage, the genetic traits of the kelp are transmitted by inheritance. The whole cycle is known as nuptial flight.

Difference important to understand the breeding of queen bees is that if the egg was not fertilized, was born a drone that has only the characters of the mother (ed haploid); from a fertilized egg, however, is born a bee that inherits the characters of the father and mother (ed diploid). However, if the spermatheca of the queen bee is empty, it is called Queen fucaiola: from eggs that will be born will only lay drones. The absence therefore of larvae and eggs from which they can be bred new queen bees is therefore the purpose of the family.

How is the replacement of the queen bee? The new queen in the hive can take place in a natural way, advanced age of the queen of the old (average 2 years). Ditto for cases of illness or drastic reduction of the emission of pheromone real. When the new queen is ready, it is for the worker bees kill the old queen. If the beekeeper should introduce new queen bees in the hive, at a time when these were not recognized, would be equally killed by raggomitolamento. The worker bees surround the queen is not recognized by forming a mass that causes death by suffocation. The same goes for the old queens.

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